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Technical Papers from IEEE IEEE logoand AIChE AIChE logo

Technical Papers from IEEE   These full articles can be obtained through ASKIEEE
Copyright © 1997 IEEE -- All rights reserved
1. The net effect: a detailed impact analysis of a three level classification system on the electrical industry
- Bishop, D.N.; Kuczka, J.H.; Rowe, V.G.

This Paper Appears in :
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1994. Record of Conference Papers., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 41st Annual on Pages: 45 - 52

This Conference was Held : 12-14 Sept. 1994                     ISBN: 0-7803-1987-7

IEEE Catalog Number: 94CH3451-2
Total Pages: 317
References Cited: 17
Accession Number: 4834252

Abstract:

     In 1987, a number of Western Canadian users and consultants began to develop a real awareness of the
     international (IEC) system for classified locations. Since that time, this group of Canadians has spent significant
     time researching the IEC system. They have developed and implemented a plan to make the necessary changes to
     the Canadian electrical installation codes and standards to allow Canadian users access to IEC technology. The
     authors' approach to this paper was to assume that both the North American and the IEC systems for classified
     locations have been proven to be safe. The paper disregards the unsubstantiated claims and counterclaims made
     by those on both sides of the issue. Clearly, there are differences between the two systems, and this paper
     explores these differences. The paper attempts to emphasize the differences between the two systems to allow
     readers to draw their own conclusions as to which system is best for their applications. A comparison is made
     between a typical North American installation and a typical IEC installation to illustrate the impact of change to a
     three-division system.<>

Subject Terms:

     safety; standards; electricity supply industry; health hazards; three level classification system; electrical industry;
     impact analysis; net effect; Canada; IEC; standards; classified locations; safety; hazardous locations



2. North American hazardous locations: the future
    - Cole, M.; Kuczka, J.H.; Rowe, V.G.

    This Paper Appears in :
    Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1996, Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 43rd Annual on Pages: 1 - 9

This Conference was Held : 23-25 Sept. 1996                     ISBN: 0-7803-3587-2

IEEE Catalog Number: 96CH35988
Total Pages: 313
References Cited: 15
Accession Number: 5533064

Abstract:

     The approach to the classification of hazardous locations, and the design and installation of electrical equipment
     used in these locations, is quite different in North America to that of a number of other developed nations. For a
     variety of reasons, many equipment users in the United States and Canada desire to have the ability to choose
     between the existing Class, and Division rated equipment, and wiring methods and/or the international rated
     equipment and wiring methods, in their facilities. The addition of Article 505 to the 1996 National Electrical Code
     (NEC), and similar changes in process to the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) to introduce the International
     Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) system of area classification is the result of years of effort. Given the
     dissimilarity between Canada and the United States' electrical codes and standards writing processes, and the
     attitude of each group concerning the integration of the new system, there will be differences between the two
     countries for some period of time. The authors review the differences in the processes, provide a comparison of
     the systems and conclude with a look to the future after the full impact of the new system in each code is realized.

Subject Terms:

     safety; hazardous locations classification; North America; electrical equipment design; electrical equipment
     installation; USA; Canada; Article 505; National Electrical Code; Canadian Electrical Code; International
     Electrotechnical Commission; electrical codes; standards writing processes



3. How products will be adapted to the dual hazardous area classification system
- Babiarz, P.S.; Liggett, D.P.; Wellman, C.M.

This Paper Appears in :
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1996, Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 43rd Annual on Pages: 11 - 18

This Conference was Held : 23-25 Sept. 1996                    ISBN: 0-7803-3587-2

IEEE Catalog Number: 96CH35988
Total Pages: 313
References Cited: 15
Accession Number: 5533065

Abstract:

     Article 505 of the 1996 National Electrical Code contains provisions for a hazardous area classification system
     commonly known as the Zone 0 concept. This change in the NEC will allow two separate and independent
     approaches for using electrical equipment in classified areas. Manufacturers will develop new and modify existing
     products to meet the standards for both systems. Users must decide if the benefits outweigh the costs of changing
     not only to the new products but also to new wiring methods.

Subject Terms:

     safety; dual hazardous area classification system; Article 505; 1996 National Electrical Code; Zone 0 concept;
     electrical equipment; standards; wiring methods



4. A comparative review of NEC versus IEC concepts and practices
    - Alexander, R.B.; Kuczka, J.H.; Spiekermann, J.

    This Paper Appears in :
    Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1997. Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and
    Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 44th Annual on Pages: 49 - 58

    This Conference was Held : 15-17 Sept. 1997                     ISBN: 0-7803-4217-8

    IEEE Catalog Number: 97CH36128
    Total Pages: 345
    References Cited: 5
    Accession Number: 5698655

    Abstract:

     New Article 505 of the 1996 National Electrical Code/spl copy/[NEC] introduces a concept of zone electrical
     area classification similar to that of the International Electrotechnical Commission's [IEC] Standard 79-10
     [79-10]. This tutorial paper comparatively reviews the most common electrical installation concepts and practices
     in classified locations as defined by NEC Divisions and IEC Zones. In addition, it makes a comparative review of
     sections in Articles 500 and 501 to show that the concepts of zone classified installations were already recognized
     in earlier editions of the NEC for locations classified by division.

Subject Terms:

     standards; 1996 National Electrical Code Article 505; zone electrical area classification; IEC Standard 79-10;
     International Electrotechnical Commission; electrical installation; classified locations; NEC Article 500; NEC
     Articles 501; electrical equipment protection; safety; wiring methods; inspection; labeling



5. New area classification guidelines
    - Bishop, D.N.; Jagger, D.M.; Propst, J.E.

    This Paper Appears in :
    Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1998. Record of Conference Papers., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 45th Annual on Pages: 9 - 19



 6. The outlook for global unity for hazardous area equipment

7. Cable or conduit-who uses it and why?
        - Babiarz, P.S.; Bradley Delans, W.; Hughes, R.

This Paper Appears in :
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1997. Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 44th Annual on Pages: 129 - 137

This Conference was Held : 15-17 Sept. 1997    ISBN: 0-7803-4217-8

IEEE Catalog Number: 97CH36128
Total Pages: 345
References Cited: 0
Accession Number: 5698663

Abstract:
    This paper is a summary of results from a professional survey of people employed in the electrical industry. The purpose is to determine future trends in wiring methods, particularly the use of cabling versus conduit, with special attention to hazardous areas. Trade papers have done a credible and complete job in comparing the economic and technical advantages of installing one wiring system over the other. This paper instead explores why the US market has not rapidly embraced cable tray, particularly in hazardous areas, and the difference in attitude between the US and Canadian markets. Four distinct groups were surveyed: PCIC members from the United States and Canada and nonPCIC members in the processing industry in the US and Canada and the issues addressed are described.


8.  ANSI and NEMA or IEC - A project decision

PCIC-99-1 - "The First Major Zone Classified Oil and Gas Facility in North America".  Authors: J. Kuczka, Killark Electric Mfg. Co.; H Bockle, Killark-Stahl Inc.; W.E. McBride, Arco Alaska.

PCIC-99-7 - "The Impact of the IEC Ex SCHEME on the Global Availability of Explosion Protected Apparatus".  Authors: M. Brenon, Laboratoire Central des Industries Electriques (LCIE); P. Kelly, K. McManama, Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL);  Dr.-Ing. U. Klausmeyer, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB); W. Shao, P. Smith, Canadian Standards Association (CSA).

PCIC-99-8 - "Integrating Global Electrical Design Practices in Hazardous Location - A Philosophy Change".  Authors: M. Cole, Hubbell Canada; J. McQuaker, Candor Engineering.

PCIC-99-9 - "Cold Weather Effects on Hazardous Electrical Installations".  Authors: G. Howell, Cooper Industries Inc.; V. G. Rowe, Ramco Electrical Consulting; W.E. McBride, Arco Alaska.

PCIC-99-24 - "Installation Techniques & Practices of IEC Hazardous Area Equipment". The Nuts & Bolts of a Good Installation'"  Authors: Gerhard Schwarz, CEAG Sicherheitstechnic; Ron Carlson, Saudi Aramco; Paul Babiarz, Cooper Industries; Tom Pearson, ARCO.

PCIC-00-1 -  "Conversion from Division to Zone Electrical Classification - Why and How the World's Largest Oil Company Made the Change". Authors: Ron Carlson, Pat Flanders and Bill Roussel of Saudi Aramco.

Abstract - The introduction in the late 1990ís of the Zone electrical area classification concept into North American standards provided the catalyst for a major international oil Company based in Saudi Arabia to convert from the "Division" to the "Zone" method of area classification.

The Company initially relied on North American standards to purchase materials but, over the years, sourcing of materials, and design and construction services gradually shifted away from North America. This required the Company to restructure their standards and accept materials and installation practices from all over the world. Today, the Company standards accept materials and installation techniques from a variety of international sources.

The Zone classification system was considered to provide the maximum flexibility and safety in hazardous locations. Therefore, it was considered preferable over the Division system from a cost, safety, maintenance and reliability viewpoint. In late 1999, the Company decided to convert from a Division to Zone Classification system.

This paper discussed details of why and how the Company made the change and the impact of the migration on electrical and instrumentation installations within the Company.


These full articles can be obtained through ASKIEEECopyright © 1997 IEEE -- All rights reserved

Technical Papers from AIChE

AIChE's 34th Annual Loss Prevention Symposium (5 - 9 March 2000 - Atlanta, GA) presented a technical session on Electrical Equipment Design for Application in Hazardous Areas with the following five papers:

- Discussion of recent developments on electrical classification - Richard Schwab, Process Safety and Loss Prevention
- The Three-Zone Classification System and the NEC - John A. LeBlanc, William G. Lawrence, Factory Mutual Research
- Standards for testing, listing and design applications - Mr. Mark C. Ode, UL Regulatory Services
- NEC Group Classification of Mixtures - Mr. Edward M. Briesch, UL Hazardous Locations
- Cable and Cabling Systems in Hazardous Locations - Richard J. Buschart, PC & E Inc


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